Row and field crops such as corn (maize), soybeans (soya), beans, alfalfa, rice, cotton, and many other annual crops provide food, feed, and fiber resources. Improvements in yield, product quality, ripening timing, and pest and disease resistance are the result of vigorous ongoing genetic selection and development.

Farming trees and vines for fruit and nuts is evolving along the same lines with modern genetics greatly improving yields and product quality. For example, new walnut varieties produce nearly twice the edible yield per acre (hectare) than older varieties while producing higher quality kernels as well. Tree fruit varieties are also selected to achieve ripening in underserved market windows.